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Discovery[ edit ] The term binary was first used in this context by Sir William Herschel in[1] when he wrote: [2] If, on the contrary, two stars should really be situated very near each other, and at the same time so far insulated as not to be materially affected by the attractions of neighbouring stars, they will then compose a separate system, and remain united by the bond of their own mutual gravitation towards each other.

This should be called a real double star; and any two stars that are thus mutually connected, form the binary sidereal system which we are now to consider.

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By the modern definition, the term binary star is generally restricted to pairs of stars which revolve around a common center of mass. Binary stars which can be resolved with a telescope or interferometric methods are known as visual binaries.

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The latter are termed optical doubles or optical pairs. Early examples include Mizar and Acrux. The Washington Double Star Cataloga database of visual double stars compiled by the United States Naval Observatorycontains overpairs of double stars, [15] including optical doubles as well as binary stars. Orbits are known for only a few thousand of these double stars, [16] and most have not been ascertained to be either true binaries or optical double stars.

If the motion is part of an orbit, or if the stars investiția în bitcoin recenzii similar radial velocities and the difference in their proper motions is small compared to their common proper motion, the pair is probably physical.

Edge-on disc of gas and dust present around the binary star system HD  Methods of observation[ edit ] Binary stars are classified into four types according to the way perechi în binar which they are observed: visually, by observation; spectroscopicallyby periodic changes in spectral lines ; photometricallyby changes in brightness caused by an eclipse; or astrometricallyby measuring a deviation in a star's position caused by an unseen companion.

Main article: Visual binary A visual binary star is a binary star for which the angular separation between the two components is great enough to permit them to be observed as a double star in a telescopeor even high-powered binoculars. The angular resolution of the telescope is an important factor in the detection of visual binaries, and perechi în binar better angular resolutions are applied to binary star observations, an increasing number of visual binaries will be detected.

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The relative brightness of the two stars is also an important factor, as glare from a bright star may make it difficult to detect the presence of a fainter component. The brighter star of a visual binary is the primary star, and the dimmer is considered the secondary.

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In some publications especially older onesa faint secondary is called the comes plural comites; companion. If the stars are the same brightness, the discoverer designation for the primary is customarily accepted.

The time of observation is also recorded. After a sufficient number of observations are recorded over a period of time, they are plotted in polar coordinates with the primary star at the origin, and the most probable ellipse is drawn through these points such that the Keplerian law of areas is satisfied.

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This ellipse is known as the apparent ellipse, and is the projection of the actual elliptical orbit of the secondary with respect to the primary on the plane of the sky. From this projected ellipse the complete elements of the orbit may be computed, where the semi-major axis can only be expressed in angular units unless the stellar parallaxand perechi în binar the distance, of the system is known.

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Please help perechi în binar this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This animation was assembled from 55 images of the CHARA perechi în binar in the near-infrared H-band, sorted according to orbital phase.

Perechi în binar, the only evidence of a binary star comes from the Doppler effect on its emitted light. In these cases, the binary consists of a pair of stars where the spectral lines in the light emitted from each star shifts first towards the blue, then towards the red, as each moves first towards us, and then away from us, during its motion about their common center of masswith the period of their common orbit.

In these systems, the separation between the stars is usually very small, and the orbital velocity very high. Unless the plane of the orbit happens to be perpendicular to the line of sight, the orbital velocities will have components in the line of sight and the observed radial velocity of the system will vary periodically.

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Since radial velocity can be measured with a spectrometer by observing the Doppler shift of the stars' spectral linesthe binaries detected in this manner are known as spectroscopic binaries. Most of these cannot be resolved as a visual binary, even with telescopes of the highest existing resolving power.

In some spectroscopic binaries, spectral lines from both stars are visible and the lines are perechi în binar double and single. Such a system is known as a double-lined spectroscopic binary often denoted "SB2".

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In other systems, the spectrum of only one of the stars is seen and the lines in the spectrum shift periodically towards the blue, then towards red and back again.

Such stars are known as single-lined spectroscopic binaries "SB1".

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The orbit of a spectroscopic binary is determined by making a long series of observations of the radial velocity of one or both components of the system. The observations are plotted against time, and from the resulting curve a period is determined. If the orbit is circular then the curve will be a sine curve. If the orbit is ellipticalthe shape of the curve will depend on the eccentricity of the ellipse and the orientation of the major axis with reference to the line of sight.

It is impossible to determine individually the semi-major axis a and the inclination of the orbit plane i.

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However, the product of the semi-major axis and the sine of the inclination i. If either a or i can be determined by other means, as in the case of eclipsing binaries, a complete solution for the orbit can be found.

About 40 are known. Visual binary stars often have large true separations, with periods measured in decades to centuries; consequently, they usually have orbital speeds too small to be measured spectroscopically.

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Conversely, spectroscopic binary stars move fast in their orbits because they are close together, usually too close to be detected as visual binaries. Binaries that are found to be both visual and spectroscopic thus must be relatively close to Earth. Eclipsing binaries[ edit ] An eclipsing binary star is a binary star system in which the orbit plane of the two stars lies so nearly in site de semnal cu opțiuni binare line of sight of the observer that the components undergo mutual eclipses.

Algola triple star system in the constellation Perseuscontains the best-known example of an eclipsing binary.

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Play media This video shows an artist's impression of an eclipsing binary star system. As the two stars orbit each other they pass in front of one another and their combined brightness, seen from a distance, decreases. Eclipsing binaries are variable stars, not because the light of the individual components vary but because of the eclipses.

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The light curve of an eclipsing binary is characterized by periods of practically constant light, with periodic drops in intensity when one star passes in front of the other.

The brightness may drop twice during the orbit, once when the secondary passes in front of the primary and once when the primary passes in front of the secondary. The deeper of the two eclipses is called the primary regardless of which star is being occulted, and if a shallow second eclipse also occurs it is called the secondary eclipse.